including covid-19

The first known case of the Covid-19 strain was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease has since spread worldwide, leading to an ongoing pandemic that has killed millions. After being expelled from the body, coronaviruses can survive on surfaces for hours to days. If a person touches the dirty surface, they may deposit the virus at the eyes, nose, or mouth where it can enter the body and cause infection.

COVID-19 transmits when people breathe in air contaminated by droplets and small airborne particles containing the virus. The risk of breathing these in is highest indoors. Transmission can also occur if splashed or sprayed with contaminated fluids in the eyes, nose or mouth and via contaminated surfaces.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus


MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is common in hospitals, prisons, and nursing homes, where people with open wounds, invasive devices such as catheters, and weakened immune systems are at greater risk of hospital-acquired infection. MRSA can be hospital-acquired, community-acquired, as well as livestock-acquired. After 72 hours, MRSA can take hold in human tissues and eventually become resistant to treatment. The initial presentation of MRSA is small red bumps that resemble pimples, spider bites, or boils; they may be accompanied by fever and, occasionally, rashes. Within a few days, the bumps become larger and more painful; they eventually open into deep, pus-filled boils.



food poisoning

Infection with nontyphoidal serotypes of Salmonella generally results in food poisoning. Infection usually occurs when a person ingests foods that contain a high concentration of the bacteria. Infants and young children are much more susceptible to infection, easily achieved by ingesting a small number of bacteria. In infants, infection through inhalation of bacteria-laden dust is possible. Salmonella species can be found in the digestive tracts of humans and animals, especially reptiles. Salmonella on the skin of reptiles or amphibians can be passed to people who handle the animals. Food and water can also be contaminated with the bacteria if they come in contact with the feces of infected people or animals.

Bird Flu


H1N1 SWINE FLU and H5N1 bird flu

Well known outbreaks of H1N1 strains in humans include the 2009 swine flu pandemic, the 1977 Russian flu pandemic as well as the 1918 flu pandemic. It is an orthomyxovirus that contains the glycoproteins haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. For this reason, they are described as H1N1, H1N2 etc. depending on the type of H or N antigens they express with metabolic synergy. Some strains of H1N1 are endemic in humans and cause a small fraction of all influenza-like illness and a small fraction of all seasonal influenza, for instance in 2004–2005. Other strains of H1N1 are endemic in pigs (swine influenza) and in birds (avian influenza).



the most common cause of gastroenteritis

This virus is usually spread by the fecal–oral route. This may be through contaminated food or water or person-to-person contact. It may also spread via contaminated surfaces or through air from the vomit of an infected person. Risk factors include unsanitary food preparation and sharing close quarters. Prevention involves proper hand washing and disinfection of contaminated surfaces.

Coxsackieviruses are among the leading causes of aseptic meningitis


Coxsackieviruses are among the leading causes of aseptic meningitis

Coxsackieviruses are a few related enteroviruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family of nonenveloped, linear, positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, as well as its genus Enterovirus, which also includes poliovirus and echovirus. Enteroviruses are among the most common and important human pathogens, and ordinarily its members are transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Coxsackieviruses share many characteristics with poliovirus.

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